Category : Health problems

What is COPD’s effect on the body?


High concentrations of free radicals in tobacco smoke produce oxidative stress. Free radicals as well as tobacco smoke also impair the activity of anti-protease enzymes such as alpha 1-antitrypsin, allowing damage to the lung by protease enzymes. Cytokine release responds to irritant particles such as tobacco smoke in the airway due to the inflammation of the body.

The COPD phenotypes are of two kinds, emphysema and chronic bronchitis. In the past the two fold nature of the pathology has been studied. Each patient could be classified according to recent studies by many authors who find patients presenting a emphysematous phenotype, or a predominantly bronchial, by simply analyzing functional, radiological, and clinical findings or by studying interesting biomarkers. Also the specific predominant mechanism of airflow limitation is reflected by a statistical model for a specific patient. This has been trained and developed over a database obtained from hundreds of patients.

Chronic bronchitis

In chronic bronchitis there is inflammation and damage in the large airway that we called blue bloater. In clinical terms it is defined as a cough with the production of sputum on at least three months a year for two consecutive years. Sputum is produced on most days during this period. In the airways of the lungs hallmark of chronic bronchitis, there is increase in size of hypertrophy of the mucus glands and goblet cells of the airway as well as increase in the number of hyperplasia. Airways get narrowed as there is more mucus as compared to the usual mucus in the airways, and this causes coughing with sputum. The walls of the airways get infiltrated with the inflammatory cells if seen through a microscope.

Remodeling and scarring are the result of this inflammation which thickens the walls of the airways thus resulting in narrowing of airways. Abnormal changes take place in tissues lining the airways, which is called squamous metaplasia. Fibrosis is also caused which is the scarring and further thickening of the walls of the airways. Limitation of airflow is the consequence of these changes. As compared to emphysema patients with advanced COPD have chronic bronchitis primarily which were commonly referred to as ‘blue bloaters’. The term ‘blue bloaters’, is used because of the bluish color of the lips and the skin and hypoxia and fluid retention.

Emphysema:

Lung surface in emphysema shows multiple cavities in the walls of the lungs lined by deposits of heavy black carbon that we called pink puffer. Inflammation of the air sacs called the alveoli and lung damage results in emphysema. Enlargement of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles along with the walls of the airways being destructed is called emphysema. Less surface area is available for exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen due to the destruction of air space walls during breathing. Airways embedded in the lung face loss of support as the elasticity of the lungs keep reducing . There is further limitation to airflow as these airways are more likely to collapse over a period of time. Patients have to put in more effort during exhalation causing a pink color in their faces. ‘Pink puffers’ is the commonly used term for such cases.

Pathophysiology

Effectiveness of the lungs gets limited with the narrowing of the airways which reduce the rate at which the air can flow from and to the air sacs which are called alveoli. It is during expiration or breathing out that the greatest reduction in air flow occurs in COPD. This happens because the pressure in the chest tends to compress rather than expanding the airways.  By breathing more forcefully air flow could be increased thus increasing pressure in the chest during expiration. A situation known as expiratory flow limitation is caused and in COPD there is often a limit as to how much this can actually increase the air flow. While exercising breathing has to be faster, and if the airflow is very low people with COPD will not be able to finish breathing out completely before another breath has to be taken.

Before the next breath starts, some of the air of the previous breath remains within the lungs, which increases the volume of air in the lungs. Dynamic hyperinflation is the name of this process which is again closely linked to dyspnea which is also referred to as shortness of breath in COPD. With hyperinflation it is difficult to breathe, because more effort needs to be taken to move the chest wall and lungs when they have already been stretched due to hyperinflation. There is also loss of surface area available for exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen with emphysema leading to high carbon dioxide levels and low oxygen levels in the body. To compensate the person with emphysema has to breathe faster which can be difficult to do if there is also hyperinflation or flow limitation. The condition calls for a well informed and researched take on medication and medical plan of action.


Blue Waffle Disease Details


A battered or infected lady cake of blue or green colouring, often brought about by extreme rammage to the female taco with penis or similar device. Blue Waffle infections are a result of dirty skank whoreness of the smack head variety and are abundant in areas of extreme chav infestations as well as areas high in whoredom.

Find more images of blue waffle as below:
blue waffle disease
Blue Waffle Disease Detail: When someone refers to a ‘Blue Waffle’ they’re not referring to your typical blueberry breakfast-food.

A ‘waffle’ is a a slang term for vagina.

A ‘blue waffle’ is a slang term for a severe vaginal infection.

Blue Waffles Cause: It’s basically a slang term for an extremely nasty or severe vaginal infection/STD on the vagina. The infection could cause lesions on the outside of the vagina, as well as bruising, which causes it to look blue in color.

See more here: http://healthguidances.com/blue-waffle-disease/


Can Poison Ivy Spread


Rashes and infections brought about by contact with the Poison Ivy plant is perhaps one of the most common (at least in the United States) but remains as one of the more misunderstood. There still persists a mountain of questions and misconceptions surrounding how can it spread?, if it is contagious, or can it spread via the yellowish liquid found inside the blister formed when your rashes appeared? According to most doctors and dermatologists, the misconceptions have been brought about by people who believe that they are experts on the subject matter or questions that have been taken as explicit statements of facts.

One of the most common misconceptions is that there is a possibility for very sensitive people to get the allergy even by just standing near the plant. This in general of course is considered as a myth since the urushiol component of the plant is responsible for triggering the allergic reaction. The only way for the allergic reaction to begin without coming into contact with the oil is to inhale the smoke coming from a fire that is burning the Poison Ivy plant. So, can Poison Ivy spread without touching the oil? Yes by inhaling the smoke of a burning Poison Ivy plant.

Another common myth is that Poison Ivy allergy is contagious. This is based on the notion that the allergic reaction is passed from one person to another. This is of course untrue. Poison Ivy allergy is not contagious nor can the allergy itself be passed to another person like the common cold. So how can Poison Ivy spread itself from one person to another? The simplest explanation is that the urushiol oil which is an invisible agent is so potent that it can survive on clothes, tools, boot, or even on other plants. A person who gets an allergic reaction from a Poison Ivy plant typically gets the oil on his belongings also. This is reason for the transfer of the allergy to other people. This is also the same answer to the question of can Poison Ivy spread over and over in a single place or on a single person. Unless the remnants of the urushiol oil are removed from these materials, the condition has a tendency to keep on repeating.

Can Poison Ivy spread to babies and younger children? Many people believe that babies and young children are immune to the allergic reaction. This is another misconception that has been taken as a fact by some people. The reality that very few allergic reactions have been seen in babies and young children does not confirm the fact that they are immune to the condition. Many pediatricians believe that the limited number of exposures in this group is not caused by their immunity but rather because they are kept from areas where the plants grow. Babies and young children mostly are not allowed to wander off by themselves and therefore are protected from coming into contact with the plant.


Excessive Sweating Solutions

Sweating is a natural mechanism to regulate body temperature. However, some people suffer from excessive sweating due to over activity of the sweat glands, regardless of the weather and circumstances.

According to the International Hyperhidrosis Society in the world 176 million people suffer from this condition. This is a condition that affects all levels, regardless of social class, activity and gender. Usually the signs are from adolescence, but in some cases appear in youth.

Solutions

People usually do not relate the excessive sweating with a common condition and think it is something personal that has no cure, however there are products to help manage antiperspirants. According to the Federal Drugs Administration FDA for its acronym in English (Food and Drugs Administration) to be classified as an antiperspirant product should reduce sweating by 20%.

Researchers have developed a formula based on aluminum chloride and lactate, in addition to reduce sweating by more than 30%, is a completely safe product for use after 15 years, scientifically proven, according to the degree of sweating, is used once or twice a week.


How to Treat a Burn

Whether you have poured hot scalding water over yourself or accidentally touched the hot oven rack in the kitchen you will know how painful burns can be. In fact burns are a common injury that can destroy the skin and cause immense pain. While minor burns will generally heal on its own with little care, second degree and third degree burns are usually severe and can result in serious complications. It is therefore best to seek medical attention immediately when suffering from serious burn injuries. If however you are suffering from minor burns then you can take certain steps to treat them yourself before seeking medical help.

Difficulty Level

Moderately difficult

Instructions

  • Place the affected area under cool flowing water. Once an area is burnt, the heat spreads to the surrounding tissues quickly thus damaging these areas as well. It is therefore important to cool the skin as soon as possible. If you cannot find running water then use cold water compresses to treat the area. Do not apply ice directly over the burns as it can lead to nerve damage and frostbite.
  • Once you have poured water over the burn assess its severity. While first degree burns are usually minor resulting in red and inflammation of the outer skin layer along with some peeling, second degree burns destroy the second layer of the skin causing painful blisters and swelling. Third degree burns are quite severe leading to charring of the skin tissues and the destruction of the nerve endings. Assessing the nature of the burns helps in the providing the necessary medical treatment.
  • To treat a first degree or minor burn, spread on some cooling aloe vera gel or apply cold milk compress on the burn after cleaning it properly. The allantoin in the aloe vera helps in treating the burns faster. You can also apply an antibiotic burn cream that prevents the chances of an infection.
  • Dress the affected area with sterile pieces of gauze dressing. This will allow the burnt area to breathe while protecting it from infections. Analgesics and other pain relievers can help with the pain. If there are any blisters then do not pop it as it can lead to the spread of the infection. Avoid the use of greasy butters and oils on the affected area.

If it is a major burn then seek medical help immediately. Do not try to remove any clothes that re stuck to the affected area. Instead use cold compresses to reduce the temperatures.

Reference:

Burns (First Aid): Get the Facts on Treating Burns – MedicineNet

How to Treat Grease Burn – Health Guidances

Burns: First aid – Mayo Clinic


10 Ways to Kill Your Cravings: How to Overcome Food Cravings

Dieting would be oh so easy if it weren’t for those pesky cravings! Luckily, there are many things you can do to make cravings a thing of the past. Put down your fork, step away from the snacks and check out these 10 tips for beating your cravings.

Dieting would be oh so easy if it weren’t for those pesky cravings! Luckily, there are many things you can do to make cravings a thing of the past. Put down your fork, step away from the snacks and check out these 10 tips for beating your cravings.

Kill your cravings, tip 1: Address any deficiencies

If you experience regular, intense cravings for particular foods, it may be that you are suffering from a nutritional deficiency which your body is trying to address. It is believed that chocolate cravings can stem from a magnesium deficiency, while a lack of chromium in the diet can lead to sugar cravings. Maintaining healthy levels of zinc can also help to regulate your appetite. Make sure you are eating a wide variety of nutritious foods to address any deficiencies in your diet.

Kill your cravings, tip 2: Eat a little of what you fancy

Ever found that your cravings got worse the harder you tried to ignore them? A study published in the journal Appetite has suggested that many people crave the foods that they most attempt to resist. Rather than going cold turkey on your junk food addiction, having a little of what you fancy should help to reduce the temptation to binge on your favourite treats. You could try following the 80/20 rule; eating healthily 80 per cent of the time and being less strict for the other 20 per cent.

Kill your cravings, tip 3: Get active

Whether your cravings stem from hunger, boredom or lack of motivation, heading out for a run or hitting the gym could help you not to give in. Exercise is not only a great distraction from your cravings, a study led by a researcher at Loughborough University has also found that aerobic exercise can help to suppress your appetite. Furthermore, getting active will help you to feel great about your body, and you wouldn’t want to ruin all that hard work with a junk food binge now would you?

Kill your cravings, tip 4: Try healthier alternatives

Just because you’ve decided to eat healthily, that doesn’t mean you can never snack again. Rather than giving in to your junk food cravings, try experimenting with healthier alternatives, such as frozen yoghurt or sorbet instead of ice cream, seasoned popcorn rather than crisps and sweet potato wedges instead of fries.

Reference:

How to avoid food cravings – LI News Radio LI News Radio

How to say no to food cravings

The mindful way to distract you from your cravings – CNN.com


Is Toothpaste with Hydrogen Peroxide Safe


According to my research, peroxide in toothpaste should not pose a health risk, especially if you take care not to swallow it. An article published by the American Dental Hygienists Associated indicates that the hydrogen peroxide used in commercial toothpaste can help to remove stains such as coffee and tea, and will kill bacteria in the mouth.

Hydrogen peroxide (H202) is produced by our bodies to help fight infections. It is present in breast milk, and especially concentrated in the colostrum, the first milk that stimulates and strengthens the immune system. Food grade H2O2 is also used in the production of cheeses and other foods.

Most strains of harmful bacteria are anaerobic. This means they do not do well in the presence of oxygen or H2O2. Helpful bacteria, on the other hand, are aerobic and therefore thrive in the presence of H2O2.

The fizzing action seen when H202 comes in contact with bacteria is caused by the release of the extra atom of oxygen and the destruction of potentially harmful organisms. The byproduct then is water (H2O).

The 3.5% peroxide available at the drug store contains stabilizers that should not be ingested. However, a diluted solution can be safely used as a mouthwash to enhance tooth whitening once per day. It should not, however, be swallowed.

H2O2 is also present in the atmosphere, and is beneficial to plants when it falls with rain. However, due to pollution, the amount of H2O2 in the atmosphere is diminishing. Some farmers treat their crops with a spray made from food grade 35% H2o2. They use 5 to 16 ounces per 20 gallons of water.

In this concentration, H2O2 must be handled with care. Once diluted, it is quite safe. For home gardeners who want to enhance the health of their plants, they could try adding 16 drops of the 3.5% H2O2 to a quart of water and giving this mixture to their plants.

A safe insecticide spray can be made with 8 ounces of 3.5% H2O2 and 8 ounces of white sugar in a gallon of water.

To whiten your teeth with peroxide, you must begin with very clean teeth.

  • *Brush teeth thoroughly after each meal with your favorite toothpaste that contains H2O2.
  • * Floss between the teeth at least once a day.
  • *Mix one part of 3.5% H2O2 with one part water. Use this as a mouthwash, and swish for a minute once a day. DO NOT SWALLOW.
  • *Be sure to brush your teeth each time you eat, even a small snack.

This method is quite safe, as long as you don’t swallow the peroxide mixture. You should see results in three weeks or so. An alternative is to use a paste made from H2O2 and baking soda, but most people strongly dislike the taste.

Reference:

Hydrogen peroxide extends its reach | News Article | Lehigh University

How to Safely Gargle with Hydrogen Peroxide

Electricity from seawater: New method efficiently produces hydrogen


EBM versus XBM: It’s EBM that counts, right?

The Internet’s been rife, lately, with discussions of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and its alternative, experience-based medicine (which, to avoid conclusion, I’ll call XBM). Look up either phrase on Google if you want more details, but be warned, it’s like trying to get a sip from Niagara Falls. Ideally, though, EBM is guided by information generated by studies conducted as rigorous, double-blind, randomized, controlled trials published in reputable journals, which can then be vetted by experts. XBM, on the other hand, lacks rigor, lacks distinct controls, draws heavily on anecdotes, and leaves many questions open-ended.

For any patient who wants to be involved with her own life and death decisions , the EBM versus XBM problem comes down to a few simple questions: is one more valid than the other? Always? If not always, when?

For doctors, the EBM/XBM choice is usually a simple matter of available data. EBM can’t possibly take all possible variables into account, so EBM will always be only a partial answer—even after a dozen or more studies (many of which just repeat themselves with minor corrections). XBM, on the other hand, provides  little documentation, might rely as much on analogy as on pertinent data, and offers no blinds to avoid objectivity, all of which makes it difficult to know how much of XBM to trust. From the patient’s viewpoint, the EBM/XBM problem usually arises only through communication. Assuming the patient has had no access to the internet or library before seeing an oncologist, the patient’s knowledge is initially a matter of how much the doctor actually tells her. Let’s look at both EBM and XBM in action. Because these examples will take a bit of space, I’m going to post them both as separate blog entries in very short order.

First, consider the following two examples for a single case. Mr. Patient has just been diagnosed with early stage four cancer (metastasized, widespread, fairly large tumors) of the blank (a vital organ). Left untreated, Mr. Patient will likely not live out the year. So, let’s leave out all the possible questions about the diagnosis and just look at treatment options.

Example one: an oncologist, Dr. Maiweh, who has never met the patient strolls into Mr. Patient’s room and tells him, “Mr. Patient, I’m your oncologist. You have advanced cancer of the blank. I believe your best chance for survival is a series of Whoopikin III infusions. So, I’ll talk with your primary and get you scheduled as soon as possible.”  Dr. Maiweh departs, his eyes never leaving the charts in his hands.

Example two: Mr. Patient’s primary care physician enters with a woman in a lab coat whom he introduces to Mr. Patient as Dr. Newstart, an oncologist. Dr. Newstart says, “Mr. Patient, I’m sorry to have to inform you that you have stage IV cancer of the blank. Stage four means the cancer is advanced; the MRI shows that it has metastasized to other organs, but you’re actually lucky we caught it when we did. At your stage of this disease, the evidence tells us you have a chance for survival with Whoopikin III infusions. Whoopikin III only offers a 25% chance for recovery, but the majority of that 25% were in your age range and just like you had red hair and were otherwise healthy, active people. I want you to keep that in mind: you’re probably on the winning team. I know this is a lot to absorb in one chat, so I’m leaving my card. If you have any questions, feel free to call. I’ll also have my assistant send over some additional material on your cancer and what you can expect from the treatments. So, for now, any questions?” Dr. Newstart sits on the edge of the bed and makes eye contact. She shakes Mr. Patient’s hand, hands him her card, and departs.

Example two, though abbreviated slightly (Mr. Patient might—shock notwithstanding—have had some questions), demonstrates several aspects of EBM communicated well, from a patient’s point of view:

  • Who is this new doctor?
  • Does my PCP know she’s here?
  • What is the basis for her treatment choices?
  • What if I don’t understand those choices?
  • Finally, of course, she demonstrates the all important willingness and desire to answer questions.

In example one, Dr. Maiweh, shows a great example of how to know that Mr. Patient needs a new oncologist (unless, perversely, Mr. Patient draws comfort from egomaniacal know-it-alls), possibly a new hospital (one that’s proud of its doctors’ bedside manners), and possibly even a new PCP.

We’re patients, not lab rats. We want to know what our doctors going to do to us and why. Most importantly, if we don’t agree, we want to be able to say no.


Nyquil Abuse Signs

If you do not understand what is happening with your use of Nyquil, you need to consider this information on Nyquil abuse signs. This kind of abuse is noticeably on the increase in many states and can be very dangerous as the drug is readily accessible.

Nyquil is an OTC non-prescription medicine indicated for patients who want to control their cough, cold, flu, and allergy symptoms. The chief components in Nyquil are acetaminophen, dextromethorphan, pseudoephedrine and doxylamine. The combination of these ingredients helps to suppress various symptoms of the conditions thereby offering a sleeping solution to patients. Each ingredient in Nyquil is aimed to act upon a precise symptom. When used in high amounts, each ingredient can present a severe health threat to the user.

Individuals who use Nyquil with alcohol on medical grounds can also become dependent on its euphoric benefits and double their regular amounts without referring to the doctor’s recommendations. Increased amounts not only heighten the potential risks but can also result in tolerance. At this stage, the abuser will need to take more and more doses in order to experience the regular high.

In the recommended state of use those taking Nyquil can enjoy a number of benefits from its use, but chronic abuse is dangerous and such a situation calls for treatment.

Initially, it may be difficult for you to know whether someone is abusing Nyquil. However, in chronic abuse of the drug, there are a number of signs that can be associated with Nyquil abuse. If you observe any of these signs in a family member or close friend, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible.

The following are some of the key signs of abuse that you should look out for when you suspect that someone is abusing this medicine:

  • someone visits a number of Nyquil points of sale to buy the medicine
  • they buy it from members of their family or friends
  • they hide the medicine in their rooms
  • changes in behavior
  • becoming withdrawn from people who were formerly close to them including family members and friends
  • performing poorly at work or school grades starting to deteriorate
  • becoming irritable
  • overlooking responsibilities
  • unexplained change of routine including eating habits and sleeping hours

Aside from the aforementioned signs, withdrawal symptoms may also be an important pointer. As with several other drug abuse cases, abandoning the medicine and going cold turkey is likely to result in a number of withdrawal effects including drowsiness in adults and excitability in younger people. It is important to look for Nyquil abuse treatment once these symptoms start to appear as this indicates that the person is already suffering from dependency.

Usually, it falls to the people close to the patient to find help at a reputable center because the patient may not be able to seek out professional help by themselves. Once the person finds the right program, medical care and backup services should be availed of to ensure that recovery is reached within the shortest possible period of time.


Dilute Urine

This is the only method of fooling a drug test that has been proven to be effective. By diluting the urine you reduce the concentration of THC metabolites to passable levels. You may ask such question like how long does marijuana stay in your body. Now when I say dilute your urine I don’t mean to add a little toilet water to the sample. That’s called spiking and it’s dangerous for many reasons. The first reason is that most places tint the toilet water blue and keep you away from any sinks; so you can’t use any water at the facility. If you manage to sneak some water in with you and add it to your sample it will most likely be flagged for at least one of three reasons: The sample will be too clear, the specific gravity will be too low, or the temperature will be too low. This method is extremely ineffective and only recommended for the most dire of situations.

To dilute your urine you have to drink as much gatorade as possible on the day of the test. It’s a very basic principle. The more you drink the more you will pass thus lowering the concentration of the THC metabolites. You’re going to have to drink as much as you can physically hold, starting about 3 hours before the test. If you’re doing it right you should be urinating about every 20 minutes. It’s important that you use gatorade and not water because the electrolytes and sugar in the Gatorade help keep the specific gravity of your urine at a normal level. If the specific gravity is too low the test will be deemed inconclusive and you will have to take it again. Also remember that it doesn’t matter how much you drink on days prior to the test. Your body passes the THC according to the speed of your metabolism regardless of how much you drink². All that matters is that you drink as much gatorade as possible on the day of the test.

This causes two problems however. The first problem is that diluted urine is clear in color when normally urine is yellow. Any urine that is too clear will be flagged as being tampered with. To avoid this all you have to do is take some multivitamins on the day of the test. Multivitamins contain large amounts of B vitamins which are water soluble and pass through your urine. The presence of vitamins gives your urine a bright yellowish, almost neon, color. You will need to experiment with the timing of your multivitamin consumption to see how long it takes to give your urine color. Your best bet is to take multiple multivitamins at regular intervals throughout the day of your test.

The second problem is that diluted urine has low levels of creatinine.